Pollack Crater contains a large light toned deposit that was once thought to be a salt deposit. However, the surrounding rocks are exceptionally dark and that makes this deposit appear white. (wikipedia entry)
A crater is a circular depression likely created by an impact event. On Mars large craters are named after deceased scientists, writers and others who have contributed to the lore of Mars. Small creaters (less than 60km) are named after small towns and villages.