Nils Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld was a Finnish and Swedish baron, geologist, mineralogist and Arctic explorer. He was a member of the prominent Finland-Swedish Nordenskiöld family of scientists. Born in the Grand Duchy of Finland at the time it was a part of the Russian Empire, he was later, due to his political activity, forced to move to Sweden, where he later became a member of the Parliament of Sweden and of the Swedish Academy. He is most remembered for the Vega expedition along the northern coast of Eurasia, which he led in 1878 and 1879. (wikipedia entry)
A crater is a circular depression likely created by an impact event. On Mars large craters are named after deceased scientists, writers and others who have contributed to the lore of Mars. Small creaters (less than 60km) are named after small towns and villages.