Ma'adim Vallis is one of the largest outflow channels on Mars, about 700 km long and significantly larger than Earth's Grand Canyon. It is over 20 km wide and 2 km deep in some places. It runs from a region of southern lowlands thought to have once contained a large group of lakes north to Gusev crater near the equator. It looks as if water may have collected in Gusev crater, forming a giant lake; the Spirit Rover was sent there to investigate that possibility, but found only volcanic rocks on the floor of Gusev. (wikipedia entry)
A vallis is a valley. On Mars large valles are named after words for Mars/star in various languages. Small valles are named after classical or modern names of rivers.